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This medal was authorized in It is 32 mm. The ribbon has a broad green stripe with a white and a red stripe on both sides. Unlike the British campaign medals, few of the Italian medals are inscribed on the edges. Created on November 3, ; sometimes called the "Medal for Abyssinia. The medal was issued in bronze, 32 mm.
The ribbon is red with blue borders. To all those taking part in this expedition, and to those who remained as guardians of the territory until the end of the year , this medal was given. It is of bronze, 32 mm. The ribbon is yellow, with four dark blue stripes. Another medal for China is exactly like the above, excepting that the reverse bears the word CINA only. This was given to the troops and sailors who served in China from December 31, to April 1, The ribbon is similar.
But a few years ago Italy and Turkey were fighting desperately for the control of Tripoli, a section of Northern Africa which had been under Turkish rule for several centuries. It was at this time that Germany all but precipitated a European war by insisting upon certain methods of settlement. Fortunately conflict was averted by the treaty of Lausanne. To commemorate the triumph over Turkey and to honor those engaged there, a silver medal of 32 mm.
The medal was issued to all men of the Army and Navy who took part in the operations against the Ottoman Empire, whether in Africa or in Turkish territory. The ribbon is of six narrow blue and five narrow red stripes of equal width. The treaty of Lausanne did not stop all war operations on the part of Italy.
The tribes of the newly acquired Colonial possessions continued to make trouble. To reward the troops taking part in such campaigns, a silver medal of 32 mm. The ribbon is of the same design and colour. Authorized in It was awarded to those worthy of official recognition during the World War, but whose service was not of sufficient importance to warrant the Medal of Military Valour. The Decoration is of bronze, 38 mm.
On the lower arm of the cross is an upright sword entwined with a branch of oak. The reverse has a star in the centre surrounded by rays. The ribbon is dark blue with two white stripes. Created on July 29, and made from captured Austrian cannon. It is bronze, 32 mm. The ribbon has eighteen narrow stripes of green, white and red—six of each colour. Bars were issued to be worn on the ribbon to designate the years of service in the war.
These bear the dates of , , and Created on December 16, , but not issued until The medal is bronze, 36 mm. As with the Victory medals of the other allies, the winged Victory is the dominant feature. This figure stands facing on a triumphal chariot drawn by four lions. The reverse shows a tripod above which two doves of peace are to be seen. The badge is suspended by the rainbow ribbon as are all the Victory medals. This medal is awarded to mothers who lost sons in the World War. The obverse shows an allegorical figure presenting a wreath to a fallen warrior.
Standing alongside is another female in an attitude of grief. The ribbon is grey with center composed of narrow green, white and red stripes. This medal has also been authorized but no information has been received concerning it. This medal has not as yet been distributed and details concerning it are lacking. It is to be sold and the money received is to go to the widows and mothers of those killed in the war.
Notice has been received that a medal will be issued shortly to those who volunteered in the World War. At this writing, and before any confirmation could be secured, advices have come that the Councils of Ministers have proposed a decoration to be awarded to clerks and workingmen who have remained faithful to their employers for twenty-five years or more.
Presumably this medal is intended to stimulate a spirit of co-operation between the employed and employer.
Ricordi intorno alle Cinque Giornate di Milano (18-22 marzo 1848) by Luigi Torelli
No decision as to the design has been announced. Several of the municipalities of Northern Italy issued medals to honor those who aided in the efforts to free that country during the strenuous days of — None of these medals of the cities are official medals, and consequently few if any of the authorities mention them.
They are inserted here in order that the numismatist may have some facts relating to them. The ribbons for the above medals are red and white. Milano likewise had a medal to show her appreciation of the efforts of her citizens for freedom. It bears on the obverse a figure of Victory and the dome of the Cathedral. The ribbon is red and yellow. Cadore, Vicenza and Brescia are also said to have issued medals, but a dependable description has not been obtainable.
During the war of — against Austria , and the several Principalities of which Italy is now composed, Rome, too, became involved. On February 9, , Rome was declared a Republic. To those who took part in the Insurrection, and who aided in the formation of the short-lived Republic, as well as for connection with subsequent events, Rome awarded several medals.
As with the others, authentic information is difficult to obtain. Issued for the battle of Vicenza on June 10, This medal was of both silver and bronze, and 30 mm. On the obverse within a wreath of oak leaves, the Arms of the city of Rome—a crowned shield, bearing the letters S. On a plain reverse is the motto. The ribbon is of equal stripes of magenta and yellow—the colours of Rome.
Issued in silver and bronze. The obverse has in the centre, the she-wolf with Romulus and Remus. The ribbon is similar to the preceding. Struck in silver and bronze, and is said to have been issued by the Republic of Rome to those who distinguished themselves during the Insurrection of The ribbon is magenta and yellow.
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Another medal is described by one authority as a reward to the combatants of It is 23 mm. At her feet is a globe surmounted by an eagle. Above is a rayed star. No ribbon is described. According to Padiglione still another Medal of Merit was issued in commemoration of September 20, , when Rome was admitted into the Kingdom of Italy. Sculfort, a French writer, says this medal was given to commemorate the proclamation of the Republic of Rome in ; although preference is here given to the Italian authority's version.
The medal was issued in silver and bronze, 30 mm. On the obverse is a shield bearing the Arms of the City, surmounted by the she-wolf with Romulus and Remus. This device rests upon two crossed battle axes and an oak wreath. The ribbon has narrow alternating stripes of magenta and yellow. Some ribbons have nineteen stripes; others have eleven. Battle of Vicenza. Medal of Merit.
Even more so than with Italy proper, Sicily has been a battle-ground from the earliest times.
And this condition, as is usually the case, has made the numismatics of Sicily of great importance. Before the period of coinage, the Sikels dwelt in the land. Later the Carthaginians disputed with the Greeks for its control, both yielding ultimately to the Romans. In addition to the struggles between the Normans and the Spaniards for its possession, it had to withstand the onslaught of the Saracens.
Sicily , especially in the mediaeval period, has shared the fate of the kingdom of Naples , or, as they came to be known, the Kingdom of the two Sicilies—a title which in itself is a commentary of the relative importance of Naples. After the Lombard rule in the 11th century, the Normans, under Count Roger, brought about a consolidation of Naples and Sicily.
The conquest dates from a. There were two periods of separation— to and to , but after the last-named year the two kingdoms remained under one crown until the unification of Italy in It is unnecessary here to dwell upon the constantly changing rule for the two kingdoms more than to mention the conflict between the House of Anjou and of Aragon through the 14th and 15th centuries. They were followed by the Austrians until After that date Spanish Bourbons held possession. The Napoleonic rule on the mainland dates from , while Ferdinand IV controlled the island of Sicily. The downfall of Napoleon at Waterloo saw the two kingdoms again united under the Bourbons.
The wars for the independence of Italy , and the efforts of Garibaldi in and , finally brought both sections into the Kingdom of Italy and under the rule of the house of Savoy. In , St. Upon his death in , his brother, Charles d'Anjou , established this order in the Kingdom of Naples. Owing to the design of the collar, this order is sometimes given a third name—The Order of the Sea Shell. The insignia was a gold collar of scallop shells, alternating with double crescents. From this was suspended a medal with a ship as its design. Apparently, therefore, this is a survival or a later form of the Order of the Double Crescent.
Ashmole quotes St. Marthes as giving as the date for its foundation. The order was not popular, and those honoured with it were afraid to wear the badge. The insignia consisted of three gold chains from which is suspended a gold crescent, bearing three letters in red, L. To the crescent were attached gold tags indicating the battles and feats of honour in which the knights had been engaged. Aragon controlled the Island Kingdom of Sicily from to This insignia was a Maltese cross, in the centre of which is an eight-pointed star.
This Order seems to have been discontinued in Giustinian, the Italian writer in , gives a list of eighteen Grand Masters of the Order of the Crescent Moon and of the Star from to This would seem to indicate that the Orders described above were connected or continued by the several rulers under different titles. The insignia is a white-enamelled cross, each of the arms having double points. A spur is attached at the base.
The Order was shortlived.
Created in by Louis of Taranto when he married the Queen of Naples. The insignia is a knot of cord entwined with gold thread. This Order, of short duration, was instituted by partisans of the house of Anjou, during the troubles of — The insignia is a yarn reel and a lioness, the significance of which is difficult to learn. Clark, writing in , states that the followers of Louis II, Duke of Anjou, were divided into two factions, one of which wore on its arms an embroidered reel as a sign of contempt for Queen Margaret, widow of Charles III, who desired to hold the reins of government.
This faction took the name of "Knights of the Reel. He was led into this war by his brother-in-law, Marinus Marcianus, Duke of Sesso, who conspired to murder Ferdinand. Marinus Was not only pardoned for his treachery but was admitted into this Order. The badge is a gold ermine suspended from a gold chain. Authorities differ as to the exact date of both the creating and discontinuance of this Order. Attributed to Alphonse by Perrot and by De Genouillac. The date of its founding is given as As Alphonse died in and was succeeded by his son, Ferdinand I, who reigned until , it may, therefore, have been instituted by Ferdinand.
No description of the insignia can be found. No other record has been found. Charles was of the Spanish Bourbons, and second son of Philip V. His army had conquered Sicily , and he became its King in at the age of eighteen, having previously borne the titles of Duke of Parma and Grand-Duke of Tuscany.
At the Peace Treaty following that conflict, he recovered Florida for Spain from England , to whom it had been ceded in Relics of this Saint, to whom miraculous cures are attributed, are preserved in the cathedral named for him in that city. When the French invaded Naples in , the Order was abolished in that country, though it continued in Sicily , whither Ferdinand had fled.
It was revived after At the present time it is classed among the non-active Orders of Italy. There are two classes: Knights and Honorary Knights. The badge of the Order is a gold Maltese cross, enamelled red with white edges; gold Bourbon lilies in angles. The obverse centre has a figure the patron saint, San Genaro, clad in a robe and hat, with an open book in the hand. The reverse shows an open book two receptacles partly filled with the miraculous blood of this martyr.
The ribbon bright red. Instituted by Royal Decree of October 22, , by King Charles, its purpose was to reward citizens and members of the army and navy who had shown exceptional zeal and fidelity to the crown. This Order supposedly never received the Apostolic confirmation of the Pope, and according to an Italian writer, Ruo, was shortlived, all record of its existence having been lost when Charles, its founder, assumed the throne of Spain in The decoration is a four-aimed cross, each arm terminating in the form of a lily, and the whole surmounted by a royal crown. The centre medallion bears the image of Saint Charles.
No description of the reverse is given. The ribbon is violet. It was instituted in commemoration of his having been restored to his Kingdom after the defeat of the French by the united forces of England , Austria , Russia and Turkey. The object of the Order was to reward the Neapolitans who had remained faithful to the King and his monarchy. Lord Nelson , Duke of Bronte, was one of the first foreigners to have this Order bestowed upon him. He was made a Knight of the Grand Cross.
It was continued in Sicily until but is said to have been definitely abolished in The cross of this Order is a gold star of six branches, in the form of rays. In the angles are Bourbon lilies. The whole is surmounted by a crown of gold. The gold-centred medallion bears a figure of St. Ferdinand in Royal robes and crowned, holding a laurel wreath in the left and a sword in his right hand. The reverse centre of gold is inscribed FERD.
ANNO The plaque of the Order is similar to the obverse of the cross, without the crown. A dark blue ribbon with red edges is used for suspension of the cross. This was 33 mm. This was worn with a similar ribbon. Officers and privates of the Army and Navy were awarded this medal for distinguished services. Ferdinand IV instituted a medal of silver for the Neapolitan troops who assisted him in the campaign in Lombardy against the French in This was 38 mm.
In the exergue, E. This medal was of gold and awarded by Ferdinand IV to the troops who distinguished themselves in the Siena campaign in On the obverse is an allegorical figure of a woman crowning a soldier with a laurel wreath. In the exergue is E. The ribbon is blue and white, edged with narrower stripes of blue Sculfort, p.
To reward those who valiantly assisted him to hold his kingdom, Ferdinand IV instituted this Medal of Honour. It is 35 mm. The obverse of the medal has a bust of the king facing to right, the head wearing a helmet, laurel wreathed and surmounted by a dragon. Joachim Murat , when ruler, modified the Order in ; its purpose was to reward those who had assisted in the conquest of the country. The decoration is a red-enamelled star of five points, ball tipped and with gold edges. Above this is the Imperial eagle surmounted by a crown. In the centre medallion is the Arms of Sicily , a Trinacria or Triquetra, having a face in the centre.
This medallion is surrounded by the title, JOS. The ribbon is dark blue with a red stripe in centre. Following the death of Murat on October 13, , the Kingdom was restored to Ferdinand IV, who changed the design of the above decoration. The star was attached to the surmounting crown by a lily replacing the eagle. Pio Forte Augusto. The ribbon was changed to azure blue with a red stripe in the centre.
Ruo, the Italian writer, states that the inscription on the obverse is Gioacchino Napoleone , but the previous description is taken from a medal and various French authorities. Murat authorized another Medal of Honour on November 1, , to reward the guard of Naples for its devotion to his cause.
It is of gold and silver, in the form of a wreath of oak and laurel leaves, tied with a ribbon and surmounted by a crown. Superimposed on the wreath are two crossed flags, enamelled in the colours of the kingdom. The ribbon is magenta. After the death of Murat at Pizzo , a medal of 38 mm. It was issued in gold and silver, and worn with a bright red ribbon.
By decrees of August 9 and 30, , bronze medals were authorized and awarded to soldiers and sailors who were faithful to the cause of Ferdinand IV. This is a green-enamelled Maltese cross with gold Bourbon lilies in each angle. This was worn with a red ribbon. Created on May 30, , and issued in gold and silver; it was worn with a Bourbon red ribbon.
The medal is surrounded by a wreath of oak leaves and surmounted by a crown, attached by laurel branches. This order was created on January 1, , by Ferdinand IV. It commemorated the reunion of Naples and Sicily , and was awarded for valour, military distinction and loyalty. There are four classes: Knights of the Grand Cross, Commanders, Officers and Chevaliers, the decoration varying in size according to the grade.
This Order was discontinued in , with the formation of the present Kingdom of Italy. Two gold swords cross at the angles, and a wreath of green-enamelled laurel connects the arms of the cross and the swords. The decoration of the Knights of the Grand Cross is distinguished from the other grades by a gold pendant of St. George and the dragon. In addition to the "Order of Saint George of the Reunion," gold medals were awarded for heroism in war, and in silver for continued service.
These are 28 mm. The obverse and reverse are the same.
The ribbon is blue with yellow edges. Instituted in Naples and Sicily by Don Carlos in Joseph Bonaparte abolished it in , although it continued in the island of Sicily. He was of the Neapolitan branch of the Bourbon family. Though usually conferred as a reward for Civil Merit, the army was not debarred from its honours. The fourth and fifth classes receive, respectively, the gold and silver medals, described later.
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This Order was discontinued in when the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies became part of Italy , though, as a family Order, it was continued for a while longer. The decoration is a four-armed, double-pointed cross of white enamel with gold edges, surmounted by a gold crown. Bourbon lilies of gold are in each angle. The medallion is larger than in most of the other Orders. In the centre, on a field of gold, appear the initials of the founder, F.
These are surrounded by a laurel wreath of enamel. The ribbon is bright red with blue edges. The star or plaque of the order is a silver cross without the crown, and with the same centre medallion. The gold and silver medals, worn by the fourth and fifth classes, are 36 mm. The ribbon is dark red with blue edges; not as wide as that for the Cross.
Authorized by royal decree of December 17, It is of gold and silver and worn with a red ribbon. On the plain reverse is engraved the name, date and cause of award. On the obverse are busts of Francis I and Queen Maria Isabella, facing to right, surrounded by branches of laurel. On the reverse is a Bourbon lily, crowned. Francis I was succeeded in by his son, Ferdinand II, who died in Ferdinand II instituted the Medal for Messina for troops faithful to him, in that city, during the Revolution of It is of bronze, and 30 mm.
The ribbon is light blue and white. Ferdinand II also created a bronze medal for Long Service. It is 38 mm. The ribbon is red. After the long siege of the citadel of Messina in by Ferdinand II which resulted in his reconquest of Sicily , a commemorative medal was authorized by the king. This was to reward the troops who had taken part in the campaign. The medal for the senior officers was of gold and enamel, 35 mm.
On the obverse within a green-enamelled laurel wreath, is a pentagonal fort; in the corners are five bombs, the flames of which rest upon the wreath. In the centre is the fleur-de-lis of the Bourbons, in relief. For the junior officers and soldiers the medal was of bronze and of the same size, without enamel. Obverse and reverse are identical, and the medal was worn with a red ribbon. A variant of this medal has a plain reverse, no fort, or bombs, but with the same inscription in relief.
Created for the troops who, under the leadership of Filangieri, suppressed the Insurrection of — This is of bronze-gilt, and displays the effigy of Ferdinand II facing to right within a wreath of oak leaves. Outside the wreath are two draped flags, the whole is surmounted by a Bourbon lily. The ribbon has three equal stripes of light blue and white. Francis II came to the throne of Sicily in , about the time of the Garibaldi campaign for the Independence of Italy. His reign was short. The Medal for the Campaign of was created by him for those troops who were loyal to him and opposed to Garibaldi.
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